Malcolm Turnbull is an Australian politician who is currently serving as the 29th Prime Minister of Australia. Turnbull was born on October 24, 1954 in Sydney, and received his secondary education at Sydney Grammar School. In 1973 Turnbull studied Law at the University of Sydney, before being awarded a Rhodes scholarship at Oxford, where he graduated with honours in Civil Law. In 1980 Turnbull returned to Australia and worked a barrister, defending the likes of billionaire Kerry Packer and former MI5 agent Peter Wright. In 1987 he co-established investment banking firm, Whitlam Turnbull & Co Ltd, and in 1994 he co-founded internet company OzEmail. From 1993 to 2000, Turnbull was the chairman of the Australian Republican Movement, and was active in the unsuccessful 1999 referendum campaign to establish an Australian republic. In 2004 Turnbull won Liberal pre-selection over sitting Member for Wentworth Peter King, and was elected to federal parliament. In 2006 he was promoted to Parliamentary Secretary under Prime Minister John Howard, before being elevated as Minister for the Environment and Water Resources in January 2007. Following the 2007 federal election loss, Turnbull served as Shadow Treasurer after narrowly losing the leadership vote to Brendan Nelson. Within a year Turnbull replaced Nelson as Opposition Leader, however his mishandling of the OzCar affair led to a party room challenge in November 2009, with Turnbull losing the Liberal Leadership to Tony Abbott by one vote. Following the 2010 federal election, Turnbull was returned to the front bench as Shadow Communications Minister, and carried the portfolio across to government at the 2013 election. On September 14, 2015, Turnbull challenged Prime Minister Tony Abbott for the Liberal leadership, and won the subsequent ballot with 54 votes to Abbott's 44.